This year marks the 50th anniversary of the ordination of women in the ELCA, the 40th anniversary of women of color, and the 10th anniversary of LGBTQ+ siblings.
It’s an incredibly important marker for the ELCA, though it is only the beginning for the Church, as women are still denied ordination across the denominations and hold less than 15% of the leadership positions in the worldwide church! Therefore, in 2020, we in the Oregon Synod will highlight one woman from Christian history every week. Some you may know, others you may not, but all worthy of our respect and gratitude. The women will be posted each Sunday afternoon on our Facebook page. Click here for ELCA resources.
December 28, 2019: Unnamed Women
Before we begin celebrating the contributions of the named women in Christian history, we want to take a moment to acknowledge all the unnamed, unknown women who have testified, preached, healed, labored, taught, guided and loved Christ and the Christian mission from the very beginning. Women followed Jesus during his life, the gospels tell us that women stayed through the agony of the crucifixion and that women were the first to witness the resurrection and therefore, the first to speak about it. The earliest Christian worship services and sacraments were celebrated in the home, the domain of women. The earliest form of communion was the agape feast, cooked by women. There are non-canonical gospels and texts that recognize the role of women, as well as ancient works of art. Ordaining women is not a modern practice placed on an ancient religion, but rather a return to the roots of Christianity and the powerful female leadership which has shaped Christianity from its birth. So from these first female Christian leaders, to the women whose unacknowledged leadership and labor holds up the church today, we offer our gratitude. Though often forgotten, discounted, and overlooked, they too are part of the foundation of the faith upon whose shoulders we stand, and for the depth of their spirituality, courage and perseverance we are forever grateful.
January 5: Mary Magdalene
This week we honor Mary Magdalene, Apostle to the Apostles, whose importance to the burgeoning sect of Judaism that became Christianity is hard to overstate. How do we know this? Well, number one, simply because she’s mentioned. Scripture was written in the context of such baked-in and rigid patriarchy that we know this truth to be self-evident: if a woman was mentioned, and named, she was very, very important. Not only do all four of our canonical gospels mention Mary Magdalene, they each mention her more than once. She also has a gospel (non-canonical) all her own.
Secondly, when women are listed, Mary of Magdala is listed first. This clues us into the fact that must have been a leader.
Thirdly, that such a tremendous rap sheet has developed about her through the years which indicates that there’s more there. Why, when nothing in scripture indicates that she was anything other than a woman from a small down healed from demons, who chose to risk everything to follow Jesus? Why, other than posing a threat of some kind to existing authority, would these other traditions develop labeling her a prostitute? Scholars tell us it’s likely that her leadership threatened some existing Christian powers and principalities. The age-old rumor mill that has dismissed and discounted multitudes of women. The four gospel resurrection narratives vary in details, but they all agree on this point: Mary Magdalene was among the women who stayed through the crucifixion. She was the first to witness the risen Christ, and most importantly, she was the first to dare TELL about it. That is the very definition of “apostle” – one sent to share good and often disruptive news. The gospels were written by men, and yet they all base their stories of the risen Christ on the experience, the word, of a woman! Mary Magdalene truly was the Apostle to the Apostles.
January 12: Thecla
You may or may not know of Thecla today, but she was a well-known leader from Iconium in the earliest years of the Christian movement. Her lively and somewhat fabulous story is recorded in the Acts of Paul and Thecla and the Acts of Thecla, both of which were widely disseminated and used in worship throughout the Ancient Near East, but later deemed heretical and destroyed, though clearly, copies remained. In the apocryphal text, we are told of Thecla, a virgin-martyr converted by Paul, who refused marriage, cut her hair, donned men’s clothing, and took up the duties of a missionary apostle. Threatened with rape, prostitution, and twice put in the ring as a martyr, she persevered in her ministry, courage, healing and faithfulness to God. Unsurprisingly, some ancient church leaders found themselves inspired by the fact of a woman preaching and baptizing, and others like Tertullian found it challenging or disturbing. Her legacy is an incredible reminder of all the audacious women of faith who have gone before us.
January 19: Perpetua & Felicity
Not only were women prominent leaders in the early church, some of the most widely known and respected were very young women, like Perpetua and Felicity. The story of their martyrdom, “The Passion of St. Perpetua, St. Felicitas, and their Companions,” mostly written by Perpetua’s own hand, was so popular in the early centuries that it was read during liturgies. The story is tragic: two young women killed by Rome for their religious beliefs. It is a story that played out far too many times and took far too many lives. But a few things make this story noteworthy. Like Thecla, Perpetua stood up to the patriarchy, first by defying her father, then by defying Rome. She claimed her own identity in a time when women were not allowed their own identities. Perpetua made her own choices and she had the privilege (through literacy), of writing her own story. What does it tell us about the earliest Christian communities that it was the spiritual example of these young women that they valued so highly and lifted up?
January 26: Desert Mothers
At the same time that Constantine was gathering male leaders for the Council of Nicea in 325CE, (where women were decreed unable to hold leadership roles – no matter that many of the leading Christian leaders of the time were female), many of the inspiring religious leaders refused to let their spirituality be constrained and chose to head into the deserts of Egypt, Syria, Persia and Asia Minor. These Desert Mothers and Fathers lived lives of asceticism and founded the first Christian monastic orders. Unsurprisingly, the lives of the Desert Fathers are more well known, our information about the Desert Mothers comes from the Desert Fathers and their biographers. So today, we honor these women who defied Rome and patriarchy to follow Christ. Many of their names and stories have been lost to history, but the fruits of their devotion live on in the monastic orders of today.
February 2: Phyllis Wheatley
In honor of Black History Month, we are going to jump our series forward in time to spotlight the Christian leadership of African-American women, starting with Phyllis Wheatley. Her story is one among many revealing the gruesome nature of human slavery in our history. Captured and taken violently from her home in West Africa at age seven, Phyllis was transported in the bowels of a slave ship across the Atlantic and sold into slavery in Boston. Educated by the family that bought her -the Wheatley’s -by the age of 18 she became a poet renowned at home and abroad. So well known and loved was she that she corresponded with, and eventually met, leaders like President George Washington. Her achievements became an inspiration to, and catalyst for, the fledgling antislavery movement. Wheatley intentionally used her art to condemn the practice of slavery and remind her Christian audience of the universal and liberating nature of God’s love. For instance, “On Being Brought from Africa to America,” the best-known Wheatley poem, chides the audience to remember that Africans must be included in the Christ’s promises: “Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain, /May be refin’d and join th’ angelic train.” She strategically linked her nation’s struggle for freedom to the need for freedom amongst it’s slaves: “for in every human Breast, God has implanted a Principle, which we call Love of freedom; it is impatient of Oppression, and pants for Deliverance; and by the Leave of our modern Egyptians I will assert that the same Principle lives in us.”
February 9: Jarena Lee
In 1819, Jarena Lee was the first woman authorized to preach in the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church. She was also the first African American woman to have an autobiography published in the United States, “The Religious Experience and Journal of Mrs. Jarena Lee.” She was not raised in a religious household, but rather came to her Christian beliefs through her own mental health struggles and the solace she found after many hours of prayer. After her own conversion experience she began to hear the call to go and preach the Gospel. The only problem being–at this time–women did not preach the Gospel. Having joined the AME church, Jarena went to it’s founder, Richard Allen, and told him of her call. He rebuffed her for her gender. Jarena married another AME pastor, Joseph Lee, who also dissuaded her from preaching the Gospel and for eight years these two men kept her from her call (Joseph until his death). But one Sunday in 1817, Jarena stood up during a worship service and began to preach. On hearing her, Bishop Allen had a change of heart and publicly affirmed her call to preach the Gospel – making her the first African American woman to preach the Gospel publicly. Jarena became an itinerant preacher, traveling thousands of miles on foot. She preached to racially mixed Protestant audiences across the United States and Canada, all at a time when slavery was still legal and neither African Americans nor women could own property or vote. She was part of the peak of the movement we call the Second Great Awakening, which included the idea that African Americans and women could preach.
February 16: Sojourner Truth
Abolitionist and women’s rights activist Sojourner Truth is best known for her impromptu speech on racial inequalities, “Ain’t I a Woman?” delivered at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention in 1851. Though the exact wording invoked is debated by scholars today, it is clear that Truth used her faith, her bible and her lifetime of trauma in and through enslavement to liberate existing racial and gender narratives and set the record straight about women’s rights. She professed:“Then that little man in black there, he says women can’t have as much rights as men, because Christ wasn’t a woman! Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him.” Truth was born into slavery in the North, but escaped with her infant daughter in 1826. When she learned that her 5 year old son had been illegally sold, she courageously took the issue to court and secured his return. The case was one of the first in which a black woman successfully challenged a white man in a United States court. On June 1, 1843, she named herself Sojourner Truth and devoted her life to her Christian faith, women’s rights and the abolition of slavery. As a teacher, preacher and activist, Truth traveled extensively throughout the United States, and alongside Frederick Douglass rose to be one of the leading public voices of her time. Unlike Douglass, she was forced to combat illiteracy all her life and thus memorized huge portions of the bible. When desiring to hear scripture read, she inevitably would ask a child – they don’t seek to tell me what it means, she said, but trust me to interpret it for myself. Sojourner Truth delivered an address in 1872, on the eighth anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation, in which she admitted that although once hating white people for what they had done to her, and hating her masters, once she found her final master, Jesus, she was filled with love towards all people.
February 23: Mother Mary Lange
Elizabeth Lange, founder of the first United States religious order of women of color, came to Baltimore a refugee from Cuba (and Haiti before that). She was a well-educated woman with independent means, (due to her family’s wealth), and a religious pioneer. She became aware of the need for education amongst the slave population, so she opened a school for Black children in her home, (Maryland was a slave state at the time and the education of Black children was outlawed). The free school that she created eventually transformed into the first Black Catholic school in the US. In 1829, she established the first religious order of women of African Descent, the Oblate Sisters of Providence, with a mission to educate Black children. Upon taking her vows, she took the name of Mary and became the order’s first Mother Superior. Mother Mary gave tirelessly and generously, On top of the schools she started there was also an orphanage, a woman’s home, spiritual direction, religious education classes, and vocational training (at night, the sisters taught Black adults to read and write). Mother Mary died in 1882. The Oblate sisters continue their work today teaching in schools, working in parishes and caring for the sick in the US, Cuba, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and parts of Africa. Mother Mary teaches us to use what we have and do all the good we can, wherever we are.
March 1: Women of Words
At a time when only a fraction of the population was literate (350-450 CE), there were several Christian women known for their writing. These women, privileged with both wealth and education, utilized their creativity, to express and share their faith through their writings. The following four women were well-known and well-received, surviving patriarchy’s erasure through the wide-spread popularity of their work. Proba, wrote a popular epic cento poem of 694 hexameters detailing the Genesis account of the creation of the world and other early events in biblical history, and, in greater detail, scenes from the life of Christ titled: “Virgilianus de laudibus Christi.” Egeria, wrote a personal travelogue “Itinerarium Egeriae” (Travels of Egeria) about her three year pilgrimate to visit significant sites from the Bible. She traveled through the regions of modern-day Turkey, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and back to the region of Anatolia. Paula, first encouraged Jerome to translate the Bible into Latin (from Hebrew and Greek), then edited and proofread his work for publication. The Vulgate translation became an authoritative translation for the next 1,500 years. After being wrongly accused of adultery and banished by her husband, teh emporer, Empress Eudocia, left Constantinople for Jerusalem where she used her remaining wealth and influence to repair the city walls, build and decorate churches, create shelter for the poor, aged, and indigent and well as pilgrims, and financially support monks and clergy. She also promoted religious tolerance for Jews and pagans (an unpopular sentiment at the time). She was a prolific writer across multiple genres: centos, hagiographies and Church history. She is best known for her work “The Martyrdom of St. Cyprian” which tells the story of the chaste Justa, the attempts by the pagan Cyprian to seduce her, his conversion to Christianity, and martyrdom for his faith.
March 8: Empress Theodora
Empress Theodora is regarded as the most powerful woman in Byzantine history. Born in 497 CE, she rose from humble beginnings, overcoming the prejudices of her disreputable early career as an “actress” to marry Emperor Justinian and become Empress of Rome. Because of her intelligence, political savvy, and close relationship with her husband, she was able to use her position and influence to promote religious and social policies. At a time when women were not recognized as having rights she successfully advocated for stricter laws prohibiting the traffic of young girls, and altered the divorce laws of the time to greater benefit women. She was also known for her charitable work, sponsoring the foundation of many institutions for the poor such as orphanages, hospitals, and (perhaps significantly given her former profession) a home for former prostitutes seeking to reenter respectable society. During a time of fierce Christological debate, Theodora held firmly to her own beliefs—though they differed from her husband’s and the emerging orthodoxy. She is probably best known for her and her husband’s work to restore Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (now Istanbul) Turkey.
March 15: Bishop Barbara C. Harris
Today we honor the life and ministry of Barbara C. Harris, who in 1989, was consecrated in Boston as an Anglican bishop, becoming the first female to serve in the role. She died Friday at the age of 89. Before becoming bishop, she was active in the Civil Rights Movement, including marching in Selma. Her appointment brought a lot of hate her way, but she remained joyful. Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, Michael Curry says. “Bishop Harris was not large of physical stature. In fact, the opposite, but she was larger than life. She was larger than life because she lived it fully with her God and with us. She did it by actually living the love of God that Jesus taught is about. She did it walking the lonesome valley of leadership, paving a way for so many of us whose way had been blocked. She did it lifting her voice for those who had no voice. She did with a joke, a whispered word, a secret joy in spite of anything that got in her way, including death. No wonder she titled her memoir, ‘Hallelujah, Anyhow!’” Remember Bishop Harris in your prayers today, a woman who used her life to advocate for “the least, the lost and the left out.” Rest in peace, Bishop Harris.
March 22: Florence Nightingale
During times of struggle, we need the bright leadership of those following their callings to care for the most vulnerable.
Florence Nightingale was one of these leaders.
She was seventeen when she felt that God spoke to her, calling her to future “service.” When she discerned her vocation as a nurse her affluent parents quickly forbade seeing it as unfitting for her social class. Nevertheless, she persisted and at 24 she enrolled as a nursing student at a Lutheran Hospital in Germany. After graduating, within a year of being hired for her first nursing job, she was promoted to superintendent. During a cholera outbreak, she made it her mission to improve hygiene practices (wash your hands!) which were unsanitary and aiding in the spread of the disease. Her efforts significantly lowered the death rate at the hospital.
In 1853, the Crimean War broke out. In 1854, Florence was asked to organize a corps of nurses to tend to the sick and fallen soldiers. She accepted the call and quickly assembled a team of 34 nurses—mostly Catholic and Anglican nuns—sailing out just a few days later. Conditions in Crimea were horrific. Contaminated water, moldy food, poor sanitation, vermin, lack of supplies, rampant infectious disease, and human suffering. Florence got to work. She enlisted the more able-bodied patients to assist in a massive cleaning effort. She spent every waking hour ministering to patients. Because of her nightly rounds, they took to calling her “The Lady With the Lamp.” Some called her, the Angel of Crimea. She established a kitchen, a laundry, a classroom, and a library. Hers was the first all-female run field hospital. She wrote a book detailing her practices that sparked a total restructuring of the War Office’s Administrative Department.
When she returned to Britain, she was rewarded for this work by Queen Victoria. She used the money she was gifted to start the Nightingale Training School for Nurses. Thanks to Nightingale, nursing was now viewed as an honorable vocation.
Her faith was “mystical,” she said. After all, “the kingdom of heaven is within.” She sought through prayer and silence reminders of the God who loves all. For her, Christ was healer, presence, and supporter of all on the margins. Speaking once with nursing students she said, “It is Christ himself who is the author of our profession.”
Florence died in 1910 having tirelessly devoted her life to follow her call to service, thus preventing disease and ensuring safe and compassionate treatment for the poor and the suffering.
March 29: Clara Barton
Clara Barton lived a remarkable life caring for the needs of others through wars and disasters, at home and abroad. Born in 1821, she was a charismatic crusader for equal rights and equal pay, a suffragist, and abolitionist who began her nursing career volunteering on the American Civil War battlefields, earning the nickname “Angel of the Battlefields.” Abraham Lincoln appointed her with the job of tracking down missing soldiers and informing their families once they were found. After a trip to Switzerland in 1869 introduced her to the work of the Red Cross, she became an advocate for and eventual founder of the American Red Cross in 1881. She advocated for an expansion of International Red Cross relief efforts, covering victims of natural disasters, called the American Amendment. She also advocated, through three American presidents, for the signing of the Geneva Treaty (now part of the Geneva Convention). She believed in equal rights and helped everyone regardless of race, gender or economic station. She brought attention to the great need of disaster victims and streamlined many first aid, emergency preparedness and emergency response procedures still used by the American Red Cross. Clara Barton saw the need for humanitarian aid and care, and she spent the rest of her life trying to meet it. The legacy of her work continues on today.
April 5: Julian of Norwich
Today we honor Julian of Norwich, a woman who spent most of her life in self-quarantine as an anchorite. Becoming an anchorite was a symbolic death. You received the last rites and were walled into your “tomb” which you would never leave again. Julian’s tomb was in a church and had two windows: one interior window allowed her to observe services and her maid to bring her food and take her waste, and one exterior window that allowed her to converse with passersby. She also was more physically, than socially distant. At the age of 30, Julian became very ill. She was on her supposed deathbed when she instead experienced sixteen ecstatic visions of God. She recovered and wrote of her experience in her book, “Revelations of Divine Love,” the first English language book written by a woman. Julian experienced God as both male and female, referring to Jesus as “mother.” She experienced God as purely loving and without judgment. She is best known for the quote “all shall be well” which Jesus told her in her vision. She didn’t write this as someone living during easy times. She lived during the time of the Black Death (plague) and the Hundred Years War as well as the usual scourges of poverty and famine. The people who came to visit her and receive spiritual counsel from her kept her from being completely isolated from the realities of her day. But in her visions, she was shown that even in the most frightening of circumstances, if you are with God, you are never alone.
April 12: Thérèse of Lisieux
As a little girl, she had big dreams. She wanted a big, important life, doing big, important things. She dreamed of being a priest, a missionary, a saint… but she didn’t see any possibilities for her dreams to manifest. She was a female and she lived the hidden life of a cloistered nun. She struggled with the divide she saw between serving God as she felt called while living within her real-life circumstances. Then she realized her true vocation: love. This led to her developing the “little way” which is detailed in her autobiography “Story of a Soul.” Thérèse teaches a practical theology of tending to everything and everyone with the enamored attention of a child—thus doing the ordinary with extraordinary love. She lived a short life—dying of tuberculosis at 24. Twenty-eight years later, her childhood dream came true when she was canonized as a saint—and declared the youngest doctor of the church. She was called the Little Flower and she teaches us that we can always bloom where we are planted and love that which is before us.
April 19: Corrie ten Boom
When the Nazis invaded Holland, Corrie ten Boom, the first woman licensed as a watchmaker in Holland, and her family began hiding Jewish people in their home. The façade of the watch shop made the house an ideal front for these activities. A secret room, no larger than a small wardrobe closet, was built into Corrie’s bedroom behind a false wall. The space could hold up to six people, all of whom had to stand quiet and still. A crude ventilation system was installed to provide air for the occupants. When security sweeps came through the neighborhood, a buzzer in the house would signal danger, allowing the refugees a little over a minute to seek sanctuary in the hiding place. Before the ten Boom family was turned into Nazi authorities, they saved nearly 800 people from death camps. Corrie was the only member of her family who survived her time in a concentration camp. A clerical error allowed her to be released one week before all women prisoners her age were executed. “God does not have problems. Only plans,” she proclaimed. Corrie told her story in a book entitled The Hiding Place, inspiring many to see God at work through the darkest of life’s circumstances. Her experiences led to a worldwide ministry through more than 60 countries where she preached about forgiveness and Christ’s love. She died on her 91st birthday, April 15, 1983. Her passing on this date evokes the Jewish traditional belief that states that only specially blessed people are granted the privilege of dying on the date they were born.
April 26: Teresa of Avila
There hardly seem enough adjectives to describe Teresa of Avila: courageous, quick-witted, independent, natural leader, outgoing, talented, well-read, beautiful, rebellious, affectionate, funny, adaptable, tenacious, enthusiastic, and charming—so it is surprising that she ultimately used this surfeit of charisma to lead a monastic reform that advocated for more intense contemplation and further withdrawal from society. Her life’s work—she established seventeen convents and as many men’s cloisters, and wrote several spiritual classics, including The Interior Castle—began after a series of mystical experiences she had in her forties. She believed these experiences came from God because they gave her peace, inspiration, and encouragement. Speaking of these experiences—and retaining her sense of humor—she quipped. “If these effects are not present I would greatly doubt that the raptures come from God; on the contrary, I would fear lest they be caused by rabies.” The Interior Castle describes the soul as a “castle made entirely of diamond or of a very clear crystal, in which there are many rooms and in the very center . . . is the main dwelling place where the very secret exchanges between God and the soul take place.” In her role as a spiritual director, and in her books, Teresa teaches others how to pray, or in her terminology, enter the interior castle, so that they might commune more intimately with God. Her monastic reforms were based on the belief that one must withdraw from distraction to more clearly hear the voice of God within. In other words, most of us need time for reflection, silence, stillness and the treasuring of this life.
May 3: Marguerite Porete
Marguerite Porete was a Beguine—part of a community of 13th-century holy women who lived together in semi-monastic communities. They were not nuns; they didn’t take formal vows— could leave at any point, and were therefore not governed by any ecclesiastical authorities. They lived lives of spiritual intention and practice. Marguerite Porete was one of their leading figures, particularly popular because she wrote her book, “The Mirror of Simple Souls,” in vernacular French, rather than in Latin. The reach of her teachings extended outside of France—German mystic Meister Eckhart was a fan of her work, but this acclaim brought her to the attention of the Inquisition. She was arrested for refusing to stop proclaiming that God is Love and circulating her book. So what is this heretical book about? It is a story of the spiritual development of the Soul which culminates in union with God. Why was this condemned by church authorities of the time? Because she states that the relationship between the soul and God does not rely on the church. Because she refused to recant, she was imprisoned for over a year and finally burned at the stake on June 1, 1310. Her book remains in circulation, though her authorship was only restored in 1965. Though the ending of her story is tragic, Marguerite’s mystical wisdom, the culmination of her years of spiritual practice, live on.
May 10: Susanna Wesley
Picture this: a woman, sitting in a kitchen chair, her apron pulled over her head, praying for two hours every day, at home with her ten children. Susanna Wesley was a woman who understood how to carve out time for her spiritual sustenance. She also carved out time for her children. She set up a schedule to ensure that they each received one hour alone with her every week. She homeschooled her girls the same as her boys—unheard of at the time—and ensured they all received a world-class education. She did all of this while married to a husband who actively increased her problems. She faced harassment from the neighbors (because he was an unpopular minister—locals burned the parsonage down, twice), she had to take on the management of the parsonage farm (because he refused to do farm work), she had to raise the children alone (because he was bad with money and ended up on debtors’ prison). As if that weren’t enough, 9 of her 19 children died in infancy. The focus of her husband’s attention? A treaty he was writing on the Book of Job. Yet through all this, Susanna continued to care for her children to the best of her ability, and every day, she pulled her apron over her head and took time out of her busy day, to pray. While Susanna was under the apron she was with God, and her children knew that time was sacred and not to be disturbed. Within her kitchen, she created her tabernacle. Soon her spiritual depth became known to her neighbors and she began teaching Bible classes every Sunday afternoon, eventually drawing crowds of 200 people. One of her children, Charles became a renowned hymnist. Another, John, founded Methodism.
May 17: Juana Inez de la Cruz
Juana Inez de la Cruz was a child prodigy. She begged her mother to allow her to dress as a boy to get an education, but her mother refused. Still, she found a way to educate herself and by the time she was a teenager, her genius was renowned throughout Mexico and Spain. When she was 17, the Spanish viceroy invited dozens of men — theologians, poets, philosophers, and others — to question, scrutinize, and challenge Juana in a public test of her intelligence. Juana’s knowledge astonished them all. Her love of study–and disinterest in men–led her away from marriage and into the convent where she continued her studies and became a celebrated poet, the first in Latin America. She was a fiery feminist with a particular interest in the importance of educating girls. She once quipped, “One can perfectly well philosophize while cooking supper” and “Aristotle could have known so much more if he cooked.” She wrote love poetry to women, in particular her patroness, Maria Luisa, the wife of the viceroy. In her poem, First Dream, she wrote about the torturous quest of the soul for knowledge. Her renown sparked vicious misogynistic attacks which she responded to with fire, intelligence, and wit. “I walk beneath your pens, and am not what I truly am, but what you’d prefer to imagine me.” She died of the plague while caring for her sick sisters during an epidemic.
May 24: Mother Mary Jones
In 1897, an epidemic of yellow fever took the lives of Mary Jones’ husband and four children. “One by one my four little children sickened and died. . . I sat alone through nights of grief. No one came to me. No one could.” Jones would dress in black for the rest of her life, never remarry and never birth another child, but she became a mother figure for many, starting by entering other quarantined houses to help care for the sick—who were disproportionately poor (the wealthy fled the city). Within a few years, Mary remade her life, working for the wealthy women of Chicago as a dressmaker. Again, she saw the sharp contrast between the experience of the wealthy and the dire experience of the poor and found it particularly disturbing that the wealthy “seemed neither to notice nor to care.“ Tragedy struck again in 1871 when she lost her home and livelihood in the Great Chicago Fire. What was she to do now? A poor, widowed, homeless, female Irish immigrant approaching middle age with nothing? She began a new life—rising from the ashes of her tragedies to become a fiery champion for the working poor. She became a prominent union and community organizer. She discovered she had a talent for public speaking. She was charismatic, simultaneously antagonistic, and witty. She was able to rouse men, women, and children to fight for better treatment. Her activism was rooted in her deep care for others and the worker’s christened her “Mother Jones.” She was indefatigable, spending the rest of her long life traveling, speaking, getting arrested, being jailed, and generally getting into trouble. She believed in equality, fighting for the rights of immigrants and Black Americans, believing in the need for their leadership within the cause. She founded the Social Democratic Party and helped establish the Industrial Workers of the World. She was little—barely 5 feet—grandmotherly type who was labeled “the most dangerous woman in America” by the anti-unionists. And she was dangerous, to anyone content to live with systemic injustice. She was not. While critical of organized religion—because of how easily it could ignore the plight of the poor—Christian social teachings and love for the poor fueled her work.
May 31: Pauli Murray
In 1977, at the age of 67, Pauli Murray became the first female African-American Episcopal priest, presiding over her first Eucharist at the same church where her grandmother—a slave—had been baptized as a baby. But that is only one, among many, remarkable details of her life. She was the first African American woman to receive a doctorate of law (JSD) from Yale. She was active in the Civil Rights movement. (Thurgood Marshall, head of the legal department at the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), described her 1951 book States’ Laws on Race and Color, as the bible for civil rights lawyers.) She coined the term “Jane Crow” to describe the extra struggles placed on Black women. She was active in the Women’s movement and a founding member of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She was friends with Eleanor Roosevelt. Yet at every turn society worked to hold her back because of her race and gender and the poverty that dogged her steps. Within the Civil Rights movement, she was disheartened by the sidelining of women, particularly upsetting as she felt herself to be a man. Within the women’s movement, she was disheartened by the sidelining of minority, poor, and gay voices. (Pauli dated women and might have chosen to identify as transgender by today’s standards, as she felt herself to be a heterosexual man). Throughout her life, Pauli used her voice to call for intersectional justice (long before the term was coined). Pauli shows us what can be accomplished when we disregard the limitations placed on us by society and instead choose to follow our internal compass, using our gifts to lead society towards a better future. The world is a more equitable and just place because Pauli Murray lived. In 2012, the Episcopal Church declared her a saint.
June 7: Ellen Watkins Harper
Time to honor a suffragette! Though most of the early suffragists started in the abolitionist movement, some of its (white) leaders felt strongly that white women should receive the vote before black men, and therefore opposed the 15th amendment. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper had a more inclusive view. Harper was a well-known author; the first African American woman to publish a short story. In 1866, at the 11th National Woman’s Rights Convention—sharing the stage with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Lucretia Mott—Harper gave a speech entitled, “We Are All Bound Up Together,” a visionary speech on the relationship between African American and women’s rights. In it, she urged her fellow suffragettes to include African American women in their fight for the vote and emphasized the double burden of racism and sexism faced by Black women. “You white women speak here of rights,” she said. “I speak of wrongs.” Harper dedicated her life to social reform, helping to found the National Association of Colored Women and serving as its vice president in 1897. Her activism was rooted in her Christian beliefs, hearing in the Gospel a call to action and living her life in service to that call. She challenged the status quo, taking personal risks on behalf of the greater good, encouraging others with her written words and public speeches. Harper decided that her personal survival and well-being were inextricably linked to the survival and well-being of the larger society. She writes in her poem “Be Active,”
“Oh! be faithful! Oh! be valiant,
Trusting not in human might;
Know that in the darkest conflict,
God is on the side of right!”
Congress passed the 19th amendment on June 4, 1919, and ratified it on August 8, 1920. Like many prominent suffragettes, Harper did not live to see the fruits of her labor.
June 14: Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman was a mystic, following the voice of God she heard within to liberate herself and others. And it all started with a terrible act of violence. When she was 13 years old, Harriet stood in the path of a white slave owner and his runaway slave. The iron weight the man threw at the runaway hit Harriet’s head instead, crushing part of her skull and almost killing her. Her owner attempted to sell her but was unable to find a buyer for a gravely wounded slave. Tubman endured seizures, severe headaches, and narcoleptic episodes for the rest of her life. She also began experiencing vivid visions. Tubman believed that her trances and visions were God’s revelation and evidence of his direct involvement in her life. Another abolitionist later wrote of Tubman that he “never met with any person, of any color, who had more confidence in the voice of God, as spoken direct to her soul . . . and her faith in a Supreme Power truly was great.” The powerful belief that God was a liberator and protector of the weak, made Tubman fearless. Since slavery was “the next thing to hell,” God clearly wanted her to be free. Having spent her life in slavery, starting as a housemaid at 5 years old, having endured whippings, the selling of family members, and starvation at 30 years old, she walked 90 miles and freed herself. Yet her own freedom didn’t satisfy her, not while her family remained slaves, so she went back, and back, and back, a total of 13 times, freeing over 70 people as a conductor on the Underground Railroad. They called her “Moses” and she would sing ‘Go Down Moses,’ and, ‘Bound For the Promised Land,’ as a form of communication with those that remained enslaved, altering the tempo to indicate whether it was safe to come out or not. She would listen carefully for the voice of God, as she led slaves north, altering her course if she sensed something was off, going only where she felt God was leading her. All her missions were successful and she continued to evade capture. Tubman’s total commitment to destroying the slave system saw her joining the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, then as an armed scout and spy. Standing only 5 feet tall, she was so respected, she became the first American woman ever to lead an armed raid into enemy territory, a raid that liberated more than 700 slaves in South Carolina. After the war, she entered into the fight for women’s suffrage. (Another suffragette who died before the 19th amendment was passed into law in 1920.) Yet for all her service to her country, she lived out her remaining years in poverty. It was 34 years before she received veteran’s compensation and only after the intervention of President Lincoln’s Secretary of State. With every single odd against her, Harriet carved out her own path, using her life to save, first herself, then others, standing up for justice and fighting for our country.
June 21: Kathy Lee Bates
You know the song America the Beautiful? Did you know the lyrics were written by a lesbian Christian socialist and activist for equal rights? Kathy Lee Bates—a professor, scholar, poet, social reformer, and head of the English Department at Wellesley College—was active in fighting for the rights of women, workers, and immigrants. She lived with her partner and “joy of life,” Katharine Coman, a fellow professor, for 25 years. Bate’s poem, “America the Beautiful” was inspired by a visit to Pike’s Peak in Colorado and first published on July 4, 1895. It is a love poem to the ideals America is built on, and an indictment of America’s failure to meet those ideals. It was put to music to become the song we all know today. Sing it with PRIDE!
June 28: St. Brigid of Kildare
Here is what we know of Brigid of Kildare: she was a nun and abbess and founder of several monasteries—at least one of which was co-ed. She shared her life, and her bed, with another nun named Darlughdach. They two were “anam cara” or soul friends, a concept from Celtic spirituality. Less certain details include: that she was the last high priestess of the goddess Brigid; that she was baptized by St. Patrick; that she was ordained as a bishop because the priest confirming her vows was so overcome by the Holy Spirit and gave her the male vows instead of the female; that she, as abbess, outranked the abbot in her monastery. These legends reinforce Brigid’s place as a powerful leader in the early church in Ireland. She is often pictured holding a reed cross made from the palm branches blessed on Palm Sunday. The cross, known as St. Brigid’s Cross, is a symbol of peace.
July 5: Junia
Junia is only mentioned once in the New Testament. In Romans 16:7, Paul calls her his fellow prisoner and kin, and remarkable among the apostles who predated him. In the 1500s, translators—working on behalf of patriarchy—purposefully misgendered her by changing her name to Junias. It took centuries for this mistranslation (and misgendering) to be corrected. Unfortunately, while giving her back her name, some tried to erase her apostleship. They were under the misguided belief that women couldn’t be apostles. Even though the Apostle to the Apostles—Mary Magdalene—was a woman. It has taken two millennia for Junia to be seen as both of the things Paul tells us she was: a woman and an apostle. The story of Junia reminds us that the early church had female leaders and that patriarchy was placed upon Christianity, not innate to it. A church with female leaders is closer to the early church, and one without is farther away. Junia lived her truth, and when we can see that, it frees us to go out and live ours.
July 12: Hildegard of Bingen
It is hard to know how to write a small account of such a big life. Hildegard was an impressive woman: mystic, theologian, preacher, abbess, artist, author, poet, polymath, musician, composer, herbalist, pharmacist, healer, and champion of the feminine. Her visions, which started when she was very young, caused her to see humans as living sparks of God’s love, coming from God as daylight comes from the sun. Her theology was rooted in her love of creation. She called the cosmic life force Vriditas or greenness. Today we might refer to this life force—continuously pulling us to growth, change, life, and life abundant—as the cosmic Christ. While describing the Divine as equally masculine and feminine, Hildegard believed that humans could only access the Divine through its immanent feminine nature. She taught that it is through this connection that the human life force blooms. In her practice of holistic healing, she utilized both the spiritual and the practical. No matter was below her notice, including human sexuality, where she stressed the importance of the female orgasm. For Hildegard, the best way to love, worship, and show devotion to God is through music. In the musical morality plays she wrote, Satan is the only character incapable of producing music. During her long life, she was a beloved spiritual leader, but not without critics. Her reception among church authorities was mixed. She did not shy from controversy or criticism. She stood up to the powers that be, religious and secular (always patriarchal), to advocate for what she believed was right. It took 833 years for her beatification in 2012. In 2015, she became the fourth female doctor of the church.
July 19: Fanny Crosby
July 26: Thea Bowman
August 2: Catherine Booth
August 9: Ida B. Wells
She was born a slave, six months before the Emancipation Proclamation granted her family freedom. When she was 16, a yellow fever epidemic took the lives of her parents and baby brother. To care for her six younger siblings, she pretended to be 18 and got a job as a teacher. When she was 22, (74 years before Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat), Wells was thrown off a train for refusing to move from the first-class car—that she had bought a ticket for—to the train car designated for Black riders. As Wells was forcibly removed from the train, she bit one of the men on the hand. She sued the railroad, winning a $500 settlement—the decision was later overturned. While continuing to work as a teacher, Wells wrote articles for Black newspapers about issues of race and politics under the pen name of “lola.” Raised a Methodist by her devout parents, Wells believed political and social justice was not just based on civil rights, but on Christian values and identity. When she wrote articles critical of segregated education, she lost her teaching job. She turned to journalism full-time, buying an interest in the Memphis Free Speech. In 1892, one of her friends, a man with a wife, daughter, and baby on the way, was lynched because his grocery store was too successful and threatened a nearby white business. This injustice fueled Well’s lifetime mission to shine the light of truth on the crime of lynching. Wells traveled around the South, putting her life in danger to interview subjects and collect data. In 1893, Wells published the first statistical record of American lynchings, A Red Record. Her work inspired anger and violence from the white community. A mob stormed her office and destroyed all of her equipment. Thankfully, she was away traveling at the time. She continued her work, spending more than 50 years shining a light on the lie that American lynching is a form of vigilante justice rather than racial terrorism. In 1896, she formed the National Association of Colored Women. In 1913, she founded the Alpha Suffrage Club of Chicago, the nation’s first Black women’s club focused specifically on suffrage. She is also considered a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 2020, she was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize for her investigative reporting.
Since 1870, US lawmakers have failed over and over and over at the task of designating lynching a federal crime. The Senate formally apologized for their failure in 2005. Anti-lynching legislation failed again in 2020. The work continues.
August 16: Mechthild of Magdeburg
Mechthild’s mystic visions began in childhood. When she was twenty-three, she left her noble family to become a beguine—women who lived in semi-monastic communities, outside the influence of the church patriarchy. Mechthild is known for the same reason many mystics are known: she wrote a book, The Flowing Light of the Godhead. Like her fellow Beguine, Marguerite Porete (whom we profiled on May 3), Mechthild wrote in the common language, German, instead of Latin. Her book is both an account of her own ecstatic, passionate experience of divine vision and a fearless condemnation of vices she observed in the local clergy. Some scholars believe her account of the afterworld influenced Dante’s Divine Comedy.
August 23: Dorothy Day
At the age of twenty, she was arrested in front of the White House, protesting for women’s suffrage. By twenty-nine, she had a career as a progressive journalist, a colorful romantic past, and a baby daughter. At thirty she converted to Catholicism and began her life’s work as an advocate for the poor. Within a few years, she had co-founded the Catholic Worker Movement, which aimed to bridge the gap between rich and poor by bringing them together in community. She also helped establish houses of hospitality to provide housing for those in need; choosing one as her own home. For Day, Christianity meant living out the gospel, and the only way she saw to do that was amongst the poor. She saw no difference between herself and those she sought to serve. Her conviction led to a revival of the faith and a shift in American Catholocism. Though she never identified as a feminist, she was a single working mother, a supporter of women’s suffrage, and a female leader in a male-led church. She was an avowed pacifist who opposed the just war theory based on her interpretation of scripture, even when it stood in contrast to the position of the Church. In 1933, she co-founded the Catholic Worker, a newspaper that promoted Catholic social teachings. In 2000, the Vatican announced the start of her canonization process. In 2015, Pope Francis called her out as one of “four great Americans,” along with Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., and Thomas Merton. The movement she created continues to thrive and her life continues to inspire those wishing to live out their faith in action.
August 30: Dr. Lucy Jane Rider Meyer
Dr. Lucy Jane Rider Meyer, was already an MD, a social worker, and educator when she became interested in the European revival (led by Lutherans) of the ancient female diaconate. Before the office disappeared for centuries, deaconesses cared for the poor and sick, were present at interviews of women with clergy, instructed women preparing for baptism, and assisted at their baptisms. Dr. Meyer saw the possibility of an American revival. She and her husband had already co-founded a school for Christian women. In 1887, she asked for a group of students to remain in Chicago for the summer to provide medical and social services for the urban poor. Some of these women moved in together and effectively started the first deaconess home in the United States. None of this was without controversy. Dr. Meyer was attacked multiple times by Christians who did not want women to be educated or to act like Catholic sisters. They also criticized her for her belief that the Bible was written by multiple inspired authors and shaped by editors (which is now the standard teaching in seminaries). Dr. Meyer did not back down on any of her beliefs. She believed that women needed formal education to best serve as Christians. Dr. Meyer held firm to her own Christian beliefs and blazed a trail for women in ministry. In 1888, the deaconess movement received official sanction from the Methodist church. In 1889 Dr. Meyer published a history of the movement titled Deaconesses: Biblical, Early Church, European, American. She also founded and edited the periodical the Deaconness Advocate (née the Message). In 1908 Dr. Meyer formed the Methodist Deaconess Association.
September 6: Eleanor Roosevelt
In 1939, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from the Daughters of the American Revolution because they refused to allow Marian Anderson (a Black singer) to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington. Eleanor then secured the Lincoln Memorial for the concert, which was attended by 75,000 people. In 1940, during the start of WWII, she wrote The Moral Basis of Democracy, in which she advised Americans to choose a “Christ-like way of living” over fascism. She was a devoted Christian who focused on two key scriptural verses: “What does God require of me?” (Micah 6:8) and “Whatever you do to the least of these, you do to me” (Matthew 25:40). She was public with her faith; she wrote thousands of columns, many of which addressed issues of faith, prayer, and the Bible. She always maintained a special appreciation for the Eucharist, where she was not a wife, a first lady, or a UN delegate, but just another Christian. Eleanor repeatedly said that it was not a question of what one believed but how one lived one’s beliefs. Throughout her life, she championed the rights of women, Black Americans, Jewish Americans, children, the poor, immigrants, and other marginalized groups. When the war was over, President Truman appointed her to the first delegation to the newly formed United Nations. She went on to chair the Human Rights Committee. She led the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 after her stirring speech, “The Struggle for Human Rights.”
September 13: Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks had had enough. On December 1, 1955, she was riding the bus home from work, sitting in the front row of the colored section when the white section filled up and she was asked to give up her seat. The other Black riders moved, Parks did not. She recognized at that moment the problem with giving in. “I was tired of seeing so many men treated as boys and not called by their proper names or titles. I was tired of seeing children and women mistreated and disrespected because of the color of their skin. I was tired of Jim Crow laws, of legally enforced racial segregation.” Skilled in grassroots organizing, she was aware of the potential consequences of her act of civil disobedience. She was a respected community activist, member, and secretary of the local NAACP. And she had reached her limit. She made the decision to resist, drawing on her faith in God. She was a devout Christian, a deaconess in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and a believer in the need for faith to act in the face of injustice. Recounting that fateful December day she said: “I instantly felt God give me the strength to endure whatever would happen next. God’s peace flooded my soul, and my fear melted away. All people were equal in the eyes of God, and I was going to live like a free person.” The bus driver called the police, she was arrested and fined. Parks was not the first to refuse to give up her seat, nor the first to be arrested. But her refusal, her arrest, and her equanimity sparked a fire in the Civil Rights community. The Women’s Political Council (WPC), a group of black women working for civil rights, immediately began circulating flyers calling for a boycott of the bus system, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott was born. A group of five Montgomery women and the NAACP, sued the city in the U.S. District Court, seeking to have the busing segregation laws totally invalidated. The boycott lasted for 381 days. It is regarded as the first large-scale U.S. demonstration against segregation. On June 5, 1956, a Montgomery federal court ruled that any law requiring racially segregated seating on buses violated the 14th Amendment. The city took its appeal to the Supreme Court and lost. Montgomery’s buses were integrated on December 21, 1956. In 1999, Parks was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest honor that can be given to a civilian.
September 20: Francis Perkins
Americans owe a great deal to Francis Perkins. As the first woman to hold a US cabinet post—appointed secretary of labor by FDR in 1932—she was instrumental in the crafting of the Social Security and Fair Labor Standards Acts and other key provisions of the New Deal. She successfully advocated for unemployment insurance, safeguards for workers, the regulation of child labor, and higher wages. Many of the labor protections we enjoy today would not have happened without her determination and leadership. She was inspired by her faith and by witnessing the suffering of the working poor. In 1911, she stood helplessly on the sidewalk as the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire killed 145 people—mostly young, immigrant women—who were locked inside. A devout Episcopalian and regular church-goer, she took one day off every month to spend in retreat at a local convent. Though she didn’t speak much of her faith, it is evident in the way she lived her life in service to the most vulnerable. In 2009, the Episcopal Church established May 13 as a feast day commemorating her as a Public Servant and Prophetic Witness.
September 27: Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus & Mary
Did you know that a group of religious sisters in Oregon took the Klan to the US Supreme Court way back in 1925 and won? Or that they opened the first secondary school in Oregon and the first 4-year liberal arts college for women in the NW? Meet the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus & Mary. In 1859, twelve French-speaking nuns traveled from Quebec to Portland to start a school. Oregon had just become a state; the population of Portland was around 1200. The sisters arrived in the fall, after a harrowing 7,000-mile land and sea voyage. Within a few weeks—with only a few sisters fluent in English—they opened the first high school in Oregon, St. Mary’s Academy (open to Catholics and non-Catholics). Beyond teaching, they took on the work of ministering to the community: visiting the sick, comforting the dying, preparing the dead for burial, and taking in orphans. In 1893, the school expanded to award college degrees, (in the early 1900’s the college would separate from St. Mary’s and become Marylhurst). In 1922 the sisters publicly boycotted businesses that supported the Klan—which was very active in Portland at the time. The Klan responded by helping to pass the Oregon Compulsory School Law—which required all children to attend public school, effectively dealing a death blow to religious education. The sisters sued and the case made it all the way to the Supreme Court. In 1925 the case, Pierce v. Society of Sisters, was heard, the sisters won, and the law was overturned. The sisters continued in their work caring for, and educating, Oregonians. In 1930, St. Mary’s Academy opened to Black students, at a time when many cities and towns in Oregon still had “sundown laws” forbidding the presence of any black bodies after dark. In 1937 they opened a preschool for Japanese children. In 1940 they opened an interracial day nursery. The sisters continue to be an active force for good in Oregon today.
October 4: Ella Baker
Ella Baker was a grassroots organizer convinced that—given the right support—oppressed people could lead themselves. This belief is part of why she is not as well known as other leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. “You didn’t see me on television, you didn’t see news stories about me. The kind of role that I tried to play was to pick up pieces or put together pieces out of which I hoped organization might come. My theory is, strong people don’t need strong leaders.” Baker’s passion was for nurturing leadership in others, advocating for the inclusion of ordinary people—particularly women and young people—in the decision-making process. She challenged the traditional paradigm of charismatic masculine leadership—that privileged stirring speeches over hands-on organizing. She warned against reliance on a messianic figure. Baker was all about the hard, unglamorous work of building relationships, mobilizing communities, developing campaigns, and creating new organizers. The granddaughter of a slave, Baker’s interest in civil rights began early. After working as a journalist for Black publications, and as an advocate for Black consumer rights, Baker was hired by the NAACP. (Within a few years she became the highest-ranking woman in the organization.) As an NAACP field secretary, she traveled throughout the Jim Crow South. It was this experience that led her to determine that the Black Church had a role to play in the desegregation movement—as a provider of organizational support. With other leaders, Baker helped establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and became its first director. (Martin Luther King Jr. took on the role of president.) While working for the SCLC, Baker saw the untapped potential of college organizers. In 1960, she left the SCLC to help organize the fledgling Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). The SNCC went on to organize the Freedom Rides and Freedom Summer. “Remember,” she said, “we’re are not fighting for the freedom of the Negro alone, but for the freedom of the human spirit a larger freedom that encompasses all mankind.”
October 11: Evelyn Underhill
Without any formal academic or religious training, Evelyn Underhill established herself as a leading expert on mysticism. She is best known for her groundbreaking book, Mysticism (published in 1911). To the traditional 3-stage understanding of the mystical journey (purgation illumination and unification), she added two more stages: conversion and surrender. Popular at the time of its writing, this spiritual classic has never been out of print. Even without formal qualifications, her work garnered great respect. She was the first woman outside lecturer in religion at Oxford, the first woman invited to give a lecture to Anglican clergy, and the first woman to be included in a Church of England commission. However, her popularity did take a hit in the 1930s when she publically embraced pacifism. She published a total of 39 books (and many, many more articles). She was a skilled spiritual director. She was also a leading figure in the retreat movement and led many retreats. The transcriptions from the addresses she gave at these retreats are thought to form an even larger part of her legacy than her published works. On the subject of her life’s work she said: “If God were small enough to be understood, He would not be big enough to be worshipped.”
October 18: Fannie Lou Hamer
Fannie Lou Hamer had a voice and a story so powerful, the president of the United States conspired to silence it. In 1964 Hamer was part of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic delegation which was challenging the all-white segregated delegation in front of the Credentials Committee of the National Democratic Convention. At the exact moment of her testimony—not Martin Luther King Jr.s—President Johnson held a press conference. He did not want her story heard. His tactic backfired when his choice to hold a press conference over nothing became a national news story. Hamer’s testimony was replayed for days. Her testimony, detailing her own experiences of racism and violence, electrified the nation. Hamer became a national figure in the Voting Rights movement. What was so powerful about her story? Hamer, the daughter of sharecroppers, grew up in Mississippi. She left school at a young age to work in the fields to help support her impoverished family. Her life changed in 1962, at the age of 44, when she learned of the political rights guaranteed to Black Americans by the US Constitution. She hadn’t known her rights before, and she couldn’t unknow it now. She became an activist. This cost her her job and her home, but it didn’t stop her. One year later, she was targeted by police—she committed no crime—and was taken to the Montgomery County Jail. She listened as her two companions—one of whom was only 15 years old—were beaten. Then came her turn. The white police officers forced two Black inmates to beat her until they were too tired to continue. The beating was so severe it left her with permanent kidney damage and almost cost her her sight. The following day she remained silent in her cell. During this time she drew on her faith. She believed in God’s call for equality and justice. She believed in a God of liberation. She believed in the scriptures which said “The things that have been done in the dark will be known on the housetops.” When she next used her voice, the voice which had been screaming in pain the day before, she began to sing: “Paul and Silas was bound in jail, let my people go. Had no money for to go their bail, let my people go. Paul and Silas began to shout, let my people go. Jail doors open and they walked out, let my people go.” When she was released, she asked the white officers: “Do you people ever think or wonder how you’ll feel when the time comes you’ll have to meet God?” This experience of brutality did not stop her from continuing to call for justice saying: “Christ was a revolutionary person, out there where it was happening. That’s what God is all about, and that’s where I get my strength.” The racism and violence directed towards continued. But she didn’t stop. She spent the rest of her life advocating for equality. In 1971, when she spoke at the founding meeting of the National Women’s Political Caucus, she said: “As I stand here today my mind goes back to the problems that we have had in the past, and I think about the Constitution of the United States that says, ‘With the people, for the people, and by the people.’ And every time I hear it now, I just double over laughing because it’s not true; it hasn’t been true … But we are going to make it true.”